Description of Abalam
Trade name: Abalam
Active ingredients: Abacavir and Lamivudine
Strength of the ingredients: Abacavir 600mg and Lamivudine 300mg
Mfg: Genix lifesciences
Container: 30 tablets
Category: Anti-retroviral agent
Abalam is a combination tablet that contains ingredients like Abacavir and Lamivudine
Abalam is involved in the treatment of HIV-type I infection, it is used with other anti-retroviral medicines to control the infections.
Abalam is manufactured by Genix lifesciences and it is active against HIV viruses which effectively prevent it from progressing to AIDS.
Pharmacology of Abalam
Mechanism of action:
Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (carboxylic synthetic nucleoside analogue), it has activity against human immunodeficiency virus type I.
Abacavir is phosphorylated into an active metabolite carbovir triphosphate (deoxyguanosine 5’triphosphate) dGTP
This active metabolite prohibits the action of reverse transcriptase by competing with dGTP and inserted into viral DNA
The growth of viral DNA gets affected by insertion of nucleotide which causes lack of OH molecule.
OH molecules are essential for the formation of 5’ to 3’ phosphodiester linkage which is responsible for chain elongation.
Lamivudine is one of the ingredients present in Abalam, it is nucleoside synthetic analogue.
Lamivudine is phosphorylated intracellularly into active 5’ triphosphate metabolite (lamivudine triphosphate 3TC-TP.
This active metabolite involves in inhibition of reverse transcriptase through chain termination after insertion of nucleotide analogue.
After oral administration of tablet Abalam, abacavir and lamivudine is highly absorbed and its bioavailability occurs at 83% and 87% respectively
Abalam is highly bound to human plasma protein nearly 50%; lamivudine has low plasma protein binding.
Abacavir metabolism occurred by alcohol dehydrogenase and glucuronyl transferase. Lamivudine is metabolized to trans-sulfoxide and biotransformation is catalyzed by sulfotransferases.
The terminal half life of abacavir and lamivudine is 1.54±0.63 hours and 5 to 7 hours respectively. Lamivudine is excreted in human milk
Indication of Abalam
Abalam tablet is indicated for the treatment of HIV type I infection patients. Abalam should be combined with other anti-retroviral drugs.
Dose & Dosage's of Abalam
The recommended dose of Abalam tablet is one tablet to be taken orally as a single dose, in combination with other anti-retroviral medicines with or without food.
If patient not taken Tablet Abalam, then the dose should be administered within the time
The particular dose should be skipped and continue the next drug schedule
Side Effects of Abalam
Fatal hypersensitivity reactions
Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis
Exacerbations of hepatitis B
Hepatic decompensated in patients co-infected with HIV-I and hepatitis C
Immune reconstitution syndrome
Some common side effects;
Insomnia, depression, headache, fatigue, dizziness, rash, pyrexia, abdominal pain, abnormal pain, anxiety
Contraindication of Abalam
Abalam tablets are contraindicated in the patients having
HLA-B 5701 allele
Hypersensitivity reaction to components present in the product
Severe hepatic impairment
Drug Interaction of Abalam
If taking getting methadone maintenance therapy, with abacavir 600mg twice daily leads to increase the methadone clearance
HLA-B*5701 allele not co administered with abacavir due to anaphylactic reactions occurs
Ethanol blocks the ability of the kidney to eliminate the drug abacavir
Zalcitabine, it is not concomitant with Abalam because the effect of lamivudine which is present in the drug and Zalcitabine are inhibits each other. Lamivudine and Zalcitabine inhibit intercellular phosphorylation of each other.
Precaution of Abalam
Caution with if patients having;
Hypersensitivity reactions, lactic acidosis, severe hepatomegaly with steatosis and exacerbations of hepatitis B
Fat redistribution, myocardial infarction, hepatic impairment
Usage & Safety profile of Abalam Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy category: C
Abalam should be used in pregnancy only have potential benefits
Abalam causes birth defects to unborn babies
The use of Abalam in pregnant women may have warrant in use
Breastfeeding mothers should not take Abalam, it excreted in human milk
Nursing mothers not give milk to the babies; it might have chance of postnatal transmission.
Storage of Abalam
The storage condition of Abalam tablets are at room temperature and keep it in dry place
It should be keep away from moisture, heat, and light